High blood sugar, popularly known as Hyperglycaemia comes from a combination following words- high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia).
Hyperglycaemia is that state of the body which refers to high rise diabetes. This occurs when the content of blood glucose becomes too high.
This mainly happens due to the body’s incapability to use the glucose in the body or due to non-sufficient secretion of the hormone- Insulin.
Our body needs certain content of glucose for various body operations and system functions. All our body cells reckon glucose for its energy needs.
With a high glucose content in the blood, the condition becomes difficult and more than the usual body needs. This leads to a hike in the blood sugar levels.
Blood sugar control always remains as the epicentre for every diabetes treatment plan.
High blood sugar or hyperglycaemia thus remains a major body concern that affects people with both types of high sugar levels.
The two major types of high blood sugar:
- Fasting Hyperglycaemia: This refers to the blood sugar level higher than 130 mg/dL, after fasting for minimum 8 hours.
- Postprandial or after-meal Hyperglycaemia: This refers to the blood sugar level higher than 180 mg/dL 2 hours, after your meal.
Note: The non-diabetic checkpoint for blood sugar levels is 140 mg/dL or less than this, two hours after your meal.
What are the causes of high blood sugar?
There is a long list of reasons that may lead to symptoms of high blood sugar.
However, some of the significant causes of high blood sugar are as listed below:
- Skipping or fail to remember your regular insulin or oral glucose-lowering medicine intake
- Eating a wrong ratio of per gram intake of carbohydrates according to the insulin intake
- Due to some kind of infection
- Due to some illness leading to improper dilution of the glucose produced
- Due to too much stress
- Due to lethargic behaviour and lower level of physical movement or exercise than the body needs
- Taking part in exhausting physical activities, especially during the increased blood sugar levels in the blood and lower insulin levels
What are the symptoms of high blood sugar?
There are various signs and symptoms of high blood sugar in the body.
Some of the early signs of this condition may include:
- Augmented thirst levels
- Concentration troubles
- Blurred vision
- Higher frequency of peeing
- Fatigue (weakness or tiredness)
- Significant weight loss
- Blood sugar higher than 180 mg/dL
Other significant symptoms of high blood sugar that emerges during the ongoing process are:
- Infections of vagina and skin
- Slow-healing time of cuts and sores
- Vision worsening
- Loss of hair leading to erectile dysfunction and nerve damage leading to painful cold or insensitive feet
- Damaged eyes, blood vessels or kidneys
The symptoms of high blood sugar can also differentiate as per your levels from mild to moderate, or severe.
Mild high blood sugar symptoms
Mild blood sugar levels range from 200 mg mg/dL to 350 mg/dL in adults and 200 mg/dL to 240 mg/dL in children.
Symptoms such as frequent urination with higher intake of liquids along with the below mentioned symptoms represent mild high blood sugar symptoms:
- Amplified thirst
- Frequent urination
- Significant weight loss
- Lower appetite
Moderate to severe high blood sugar symptoms
Blood sugar levels ranging from above 350 mg/dL in adults and above 240 mg/dL in children leads to several significant symptoms of high blood sugar as mentioned below:-
- Blurred sight and vision
- Extremely amplified thirst
- Feeling of light-headedness
- Skin insensitivity along with flushed, hot and dry skin appearance
- Restless, drowsy feeling with difficulty in morning wake ups
- Deep breathing
- Weaker pulse rate with faster heart beat rate
- Odor in breath
- Loss of appetite with belly pain and vomiting.
What are the food items that increase and decrease the blood sugar content?
Food items that decrease blood sugar levels are:
- MUFAs contained in avocados, nuts, seeds, olives, flax and olive oil
- Anthocyanin containing nuts, blueberry, blackberry, cherries etc.
- Apple cider vinegar
Food items that increase the blood sugar levels are:
What are the effects of high blood sugar on body and health?
Sugar content in the body decomposes into simplest forms called glucose. This glucose needs to be absorbed by the blood for the different energy needs of the body.
To complete this process our pancreas need to produce the hormone- Insulin.
People with high blood sugar levels have the pancreas that produce lesser or no insulin or are incapable of normal glucose absorption process.
This is why the blood glucose levels automatically rises and create multiple problems in the body, which affects various body parts.
Some of the significant effects of high blood sugar on body and health are as follows:
- High blood sugar damages your kidneys creating the inability to filter the waste elements from the blood.
- It may also lead to kidney diseases like- diabetic nephropathy.
- Gastroparesis is another problem evolving out of high blood sugar problems in blood.
- Diabetes affects skin and leads to moisture loss causing dry and cracking effect on skin.
- Diabetes causes damaged nerves leading to peripheral neuropathy that effects sensitivity of hot, cold, pain, leading to higher susceptibility to injury.
- Hormonal imbalances during pregnancy are a major cause of gestational diabetes. The gestational diabetes is a major risk factor for high blood pressure leading to preeclampsia or eclampsia.
- Frequent or fragmentary high blood sugar causes significant damage to nerves, blood vessels and other body organs.
How to fight against high blood sugar levels?
Fighting against high blood sugar symptoms is a preventive way to control its effect on the body.
Even small steps towards the control cycle can provide miraculous results on high blood sugar levels, such as:-
- Prescribed insulin intake with glucose-lowering medication
- Lowering down the excess calories consumption in sugary beverages
- Consuming correct amount of carbohydrates
- Taking control of stress situations
- Regular exercise and stay active
- Scheduled and regular blood sugar checkups with doctor’s appointments
Keeping a check on the symptoms of high blood sugar levels, one can fight against the body troubles at a very early stage. Check through the above mentioned facts for better visible results on your health and body.